条件随机域(场)(conditional random fields,简称 CRF,或CRFs),是一种判别式概率模型,是随机场的一种,常用于标注或分析序列资料,如自然语言文字或是生物序列。 如同马尔可夫随机场,条件随机场为具有无向的图模型,图中的顶点代表随机变量,顶点间的连线代表随机变量间的相依关系,在条件随机场中,随机变量 Y 的分布为条件机率,给定的观察值则为随机变量 X。原则上,条件随机场的图模型布局是可以任意给定的,一般常用的布局是链结式的架构,链结式架构不论在训练(training)、推论(inference)、或是解码(decoding)上,都存在效率较高的算法可供演算。

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We investigate the problem of Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC) and present a new framework named Tail-to-Tail (\textbf{TtT}) non-autoregressive sequence prediction to address the deep issues hidden in CGEC. Considering that most tokens are correct and can be conveyed directly from source to target, and the error positions can be estimated and corrected based on the bidirectional context information, thus we employ a BERT-initialized Transformer Encoder as the backbone model to conduct information modeling and conveying. Considering that only relying on the same position substitution cannot handle the variable-length correction cases, various operations such substitution, deletion, insertion, and local paraphrasing are required jointly. Therefore, a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) layer is stacked on the up tail to conduct non-autoregressive sequence prediction by modeling the token dependencies. Since most tokens are correct and easily to be predicted/conveyed to the target, then the models may suffer from a severe class imbalance issue. To alleviate this problem, focal loss penalty strategies are integrated into the loss functions. Moreover, besides the typical fix-length error correction datasets, we also construct a variable-length corpus to conduct experiments. Experimental results on standard datasets, especially on the variable-length datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness of TtT in terms of sentence-level Accuracy, Precision, Recall, and F1-Measure on tasks of error Detection and Correction.

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