CC在计算复杂性方面表现突出。它的学科处于数学与计算机理论科学的交叉点,具有清晰的数学轮廓和严格的数学格式。官网链接:https://link.springer.com/journal/37

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iALS is a popular algorithm for learning matrix factorization models from implicit feedback with alternating least squares. This algorithm was invented over a decade ago but still shows competitive quality compared to recent approaches like VAE, EASE, SLIM, or NCF. Due to a computational trick that avoids negative sampling, iALS is very efficient especially for large item catalogues. However, iALS does not scale well with large embedding dimensions, d, due to its cubic runtime dependency on d. Coordinate descent variations, iCD, have been proposed to lower the complexity to quadratic in d. In this work, we show that iCD approaches are not well suited for modern processors and can be an order of magnitude slower than a careful iALS implementation for small to mid scale embedding sizes (d ~ 100) and only perform better than iALS on large embeddings d ~ 1000. We propose a new solver iALS++ that combines the advantages of iALS in terms of vector processing with a low computational complexity as in iCD. iALS++ is an order of magnitude faster than iCD both for small and large embedding dimensions. It can solve benchmark problems like Movielens 20M or Million Song Dataset even for 1000 dimensional embedding vectors in a few minutes.

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iALS is a popular algorithm for learning matrix factorization models from implicit feedback with alternating least squares. This algorithm was invented over a decade ago but still shows competitive quality compared to recent approaches like VAE, EASE, SLIM, or NCF. Due to a computational trick that avoids negative sampling, iALS is very efficient especially for large item catalogues. However, iALS does not scale well with large embedding dimensions, d, due to its cubic runtime dependency on d. Coordinate descent variations, iCD, have been proposed to lower the complexity to quadratic in d. In this work, we show that iCD approaches are not well suited for modern processors and can be an order of magnitude slower than a careful iALS implementation for small to mid scale embedding sizes (d ~ 100) and only perform better than iALS on large embeddings d ~ 1000. We propose a new solver iALS++ that combines the advantages of iALS in terms of vector processing with a low computational complexity as in iCD. iALS++ is an order of magnitude faster than iCD both for small and large embedding dimensions. It can solve benchmark problems like Movielens 20M or Million Song Dataset even for 1000 dimensional embedding vectors in a few minutes.

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