An individual's variation in writing style is often a function of both social and personal attributes. While structured social variation has been extensively studied, e.g., gender based variation, far less is known about how to characterize individual styles due to their idiosyncratic nature. We introduce a new approach to studying idiolects through a massive cross-author comparison to identify and encode stylistic features. The neural model achieves strong performance at authorship identification on short texts and through an analogy-based probing task, showing that the learned representations exhibit surprising regularities that encode qualitative and quantitative shifts of idiolectal styles. Through text perturbation, we quantify the relative contributions of different linguistic elements to idiolectal variation. Furthermore, we provide a description of idiolects through measuring inter- and intra-author variation, showing that variation in idiolects is often distinctive yet consistent.

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iOS 8 提供的应用间和应用跟系统的功能交互特性。
  • Today (iOS and OS X): widgets for the Today view of Notification Center
  • Share (iOS and OS X): post content to web services or share content with others
  • Actions (iOS and OS X): app extensions to view or manipulate inside another app
  • Photo Editing (iOS): edit a photo or video in Apple's Photos app with extensions from a third-party apps
  • Finder Sync (OS X): remote file storage in the Finder with support for Finder content annotation
  • Storage Provider (iOS): an interface between files inside an app and other apps on a user's device
  • Custom Keyboard (iOS): system-wide alternative keyboards

Source: iOS 8 Extensions: Apple’s Plan for a Powerful App Ecosystem

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has shown an unprecedented global crisis by the detrimental effect on the global economy and health. The number of COVID-19 cases has been rapidly increasing, and there is no sign of stopping. It leads to a severe shortage of test kits and accurate detection models. A recent study demonstrated that the chest X-ray radiography outperformed laboratory testing in COVID-19 detection. Therefore, using chest X-ray radiography analysis can help to screen suspected COVID-19 cases at an early stage. Moreover, the patient data is sensitive, and it must be protected to avoid revealing through model updates and reconstruction from the malicious attacker. In this paper, we present a privacy-preserving Federated Learning system for COVID-19 detection based on chest X-ray images. First, a Federated Learning system is constructed from chest X-ray images. The main idea is to build a decentralized model across multiple hospitals without sharing data among hospitals. Second, we first show that the accuracy of Federated Learning for COVID-19 identification reduces significantly for Non-IID data. We then propose a strategy to improve model's accuracy on Non-IID COVID-19 data by increasing the total number of clients, parallelism (client fraction), and computation per client. Finally, we apply a Differential Privacy Stochastic Gradient Descent (DP-SGD) to enhance the preserving of patient data privacy for our Federated Learning model. A strategy is also proposed to keep the robustness of Federated Learning to ensure the security and accuracy of the model.

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We study regression discontinuity designs in which many covariates, possibly much more than the number of observations, are available. We provide a two-step algorithm which first selects the set of covariates to be used through a localized Lasso-type procedure, and then, in a second step, estimates the treatment effect by including the selected covariates into the usual local linear estimator. We provide an in-depth analysis of the algorithm's theoretical properties, showing that, under an approximate sparsity condition, the resulting estimator is asymptotically normal, with asymptotic bias and variance that are conceptually similar to those obtained in low-dimensional settings. Bandwidth selection and inference can be carried out using standard methods. We also provide simulations and an empirical application.

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Modern data collecting methods and computation tools have made it possible to monitor high-dimensional processes. In this article, Phase II monitoring of high-dimensional processes is investigated when the available number of samples collected in Phase I is limitted in comparison to the number of variables. A new charting statistic for high-dimensional multivariate processes based on the diagonal elements of the underlying covariance matrix is introduced and a unified procedure for Phase I and II by employing a self-starting control chart is proposed. To remedy the effect of outliers, we adopt a robust procedure for parameter estimation in Phase I and introduce the appropriate consistent estimators. The statistical performance of the proposed method is evaluated in Phase II through average run length (ARL) criterion in the absence and presence of outliers and reveals that the proposed control chart scheme effectively detects various kinds of shifts in the process mean. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of our proposed method via a real-world example.

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With the advent of continuous health monitoring with wearable devices, users now generate their unique streams of continuous data such as minute-level step counts or heartbeats. Summarizing these streams via scalar summaries often ignores the distributional nature of wearable data and almost unavoidably leads to the loss of critical information. We propose to capture the distributional nature of wearable data via user-specific quantile functions (QF) and use these QFs as predictors in scalar-on-quantile-function-regression (SOQFR). As an alternative approach, we also propose to represent QFs via user-specific L-moments, robust rank-based analogs of traditional moments, and use L-moments as predictors in SOQFR (SOQFR-L). These two approaches provide two mutually consistent interpretations: in terms of quantile levels by SOQFR and in terms of L-moments by SOQFR-L. We also demonstrate how to deal with multi-modal distributional data via Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE) using L-moments. The proposed methods are illustrated in a study of association of digital gait biomarkers with cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our analysis shows that the proposed methods demonstrate higher predictive performance and attain much stronger associations with clinical cognitive scales compared to simple distributional summaries.

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While probabilistic models are an important tool for studying causality, doing so suffers from the intractability of inference. As a step towards tractable causal models, we consider the problem of learning interventional distributions using sum-product networks (SPNs) that are over-parameterized by gate functions, e.g., neural networks. Providing an arbitrarily intervened causal graph as input, effectively subsuming Pearl's do-operator, the gate function predicts the parameters of the SPN. The resulting interventional SPNs are motivated and illustrated by a structural causal model themed around personal health. Our empirical evaluation on three benchmark data sets as well as a synthetic health data set clearly demonstrates that interventional SPNs indeed are both expressive in modelling and flexible in adapting to the interventions.

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Few-shot classifiers have been shown to exhibit promising results in use cases where user-provided labels are scarce. These models are able to learn to predict novel classes simply by training on a non-overlapping set of classes. This can be largely attributed to the differences in their mechanisms as compared to conventional deep networks. However, this also offers new opportunities for novel attackers to induce integrity attacks against such models, which are not present in other machine learning setups. In this work, we aim to close this gap by studying a conceptually simple approach to defend few-shot classifiers against adversarial attacks. More specifically, we propose a simple attack-agnostic detection method, using the concept of self-similarity and filtering, to flag out adversarial support sets which destroy the understanding of a victim classifier for a certain class. Our extended evaluation on the miniImagenet (MI) and CUB datasets exhibit good attack detection performance, across three different few-shot classifiers and across different attack strengths, beating baselines. Our observed results allow our approach to establishing itself as a strong detection method for support set poisoning attacks. We also show that our approach constitutes a generalizable concept, as it can be paired with other filtering functions. Finally, we provide an analysis of our results when we vary two components found in our detection approach.

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We construct and analyze a CutFEM discretization for the Stokes problem based on the Scott-Vogelius pair. The discrete piecewise polynomial spaces are defined on macro-element triangulations which are not fitted to the smooth physical domain. Boundary conditions are imposed via penalization through the help of a Nitsche-type discretization, whereas stability with respect to small and anisotropic cuts of the bulk elements is ensured by adding local ghost penalty stabilization terms. We show stability of the scheme as well as a divergence--free property of the discrete velocity outside an $O(h)$ neighborhood of the boundary. To mitigate the error caused by the violation of the divergence-free condition, we introduce local grad-div stabilization. The error analysis shows that the grad-div parameter can scale like $O(h^{-1})$, allowing a rather heavy penalty for the violation of mass conservation, while still ensuring optimal order error estimates.

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Autoencoders provide a powerful framework for learning compressed representations by encoding all of the information needed to reconstruct a data point in a latent code. In some cases, autoencoders can "interpolate": By decoding the convex combination of the latent codes for two datapoints, the autoencoder can produce an output which semantically mixes characteristics from the datapoints. In this paper, we propose a regularization procedure which encourages interpolated outputs to appear more realistic by fooling a critic network which has been trained to recover the mixing coefficient from interpolated data. We then develop a simple benchmark task where we can quantitatively measure the extent to which various autoencoders can interpolate and show that our regularizer dramatically improves interpolation in this setting. We also demonstrate empirically that our regularizer produces latent codes which are more effective on downstream tasks, suggesting a possible link between interpolation abilities and learning useful representations.

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Realistic music generation is a challenging task. When building generative models of music that are learnt from data, typically high-level representations such as scores or MIDI are used that abstract away the idiosyncrasies of a particular performance. But these nuances are very important for our perception of musicality and realism, so in this work we embark on modelling music in the raw audio domain. It has been shown that autoregressive models excel at generating raw audio waveforms of speech, but when applied to music, we find them biased towards capturing local signal structure at the expense of modelling long-range correlations. This is problematic because music exhibits structure at many different timescales. In this work, we explore autoregressive discrete autoencoders (ADAs) as a means to enable autoregressive models to capture long-range correlations in waveforms. We find that they allow us to unconditionally generate piano music directly in the raw audio domain, which shows stylistic consistency across tens of seconds.

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Social media features substantial stylistic variation, raising new challenges for syntactic analysis of online writing. However, this variation is often aligned with author attributes such as age, gender, and geography, as well as more readily-available social network metadata. In this paper, we report new evidence on the link between language and social networks in the task of part-of-speech tagging. We find that tagger error rates are correlated with network structure, with high accuracy in some parts of the network, and lower accuracy elsewhere. As a result, tagger accuracy depends on training from a balanced sample of the network, rather than training on texts from a narrow subcommunity. We also describe our attempts to add robustness to stylistic variation, by building a mixture-of-experts model in which each expert is associated with a region of the social network. While prior work found that similar approaches yield performance improvements in sentiment analysis and entity linking, we were unable to obtain performance improvements in part-of-speech tagging, despite strong evidence for the link between part-of-speech error rates and social network structure.

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